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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 63-76

Expert group opinion for endemic bacterial infections in South Asia in solid organ transplant recipients - Typhoid, paratyphoid, leptospirosis, scrub typhus, and melioidosis


1 Department of Internal Medicine, Medanta - The Medicity, Gurugram, Haryana, India
2 Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Apollo Hospitals, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
3 Department of Nephrology and Renal Transplant Medicine, Medanta Kidney and Urology Institute, Medanta - The Medicity, Gurugram, Haryana, India
4 Department of Nephrology, All India institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Vikas Deswal
Department of Internal Medicine, Medanta - The Medicity, Sector 38, Gurugram - 122 001, Haryana
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijot.ijot_5_22

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Typhoid, paratyphoid, leptospirosis, scrub typhus, and melioidosis are some of the common bacterial infections which are endemic in the region of South Asia. Typhoid and paratyphoid cause enteric fever which is a common cause of fever in the general population in this region. It is caused by Salmonella through contaminated food and water. Enteric fever is one of the most common causes of fever in travelers in this region. Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Leptospira and occurs due to direct contact with animals like or through abraded skin after the monsoon in the endemic area. Fever and jaundice are the most common presentations. Scrub typhus is caused by mite Orientia tsutsugamushi and it has now emerged as one of the most common causes of pyrexia in this region. Melioidosis is an uncommon infection caused by the bacteria Burkholderia pseudomalle, which is endemic in some regions of South Asia and is usually seen in immunocompromised individuals. Melioidosis is often called great mimicker due to a variety of clinical manifestations which might confuse it with other diseases. All these infections can cause fever or other systemic complications involving various organs in transplant recipients, so they should be kept as part of differential diagnosis of pyrexia in transplant recipients. There are no recommendations to screen for these infections in transplant candidates or donors, however, transplant candidates or donors with fever should be investigated for these infections and transplant should be deferred until full recovery and for some time thereafter.


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