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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 316-321

Tuberculosis in kidney transplant recipients: A retrospective study from a tertiary care center - An observational study

Department of Nephrology, Government Stanley Medical College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. K Thirumalvalavan
Government Stanley Medical College, 1, Old Jail Road, Royapuram, Chennai - 600 001, Tamil Nadu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijot.ijot_33_22

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Background: The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) among transplant recipients varies from 5% to 15% across the globe. We conducted a retrospective study to identify the incidence of TB among kidney transplant recipients in our transplant unit. Materials and Methods: We assessed the patients who underwent kidney transplantation in our transplant unit during the study period from January 2014 to June 2018 and included those recipients who had bacteriologically confirmed TB. We excluded the patients who had TB before transplant and those recipients who were initiated on antituberculosis treatment (ATT) empirically. The details collected were: 1. Clinical data, the presenting symptoms, and clinical findings. 2. Diagnostic investigation: Microbiological/histopathological/radiological/bronchoalveolar lavage/fluid (pleural/peritoneal/cerebrospinal fluid) analysis. 3. Antituberculous regimen, dose, and duration of the therapy. 4. Relapse/patient and graft outcome after treatment.Results: The total number of patients who underwent kidney transplantation during the study period was 177. TB occurred in 21 patients after transplantation. The incidence of TB in our transplant unit was 11.86%. In these 21 recipients, 8 had pulmonary TB and the remaining 13 had extrapulmonary/disseminated TB, which included two patients with disseminated TB and one patient with allograft dysfunction with thrombotic microangiopathy which was attributed to TB as it responded to first-line antituberculous drugs. The mortality rate was 23.8%, as five patients expired. After excluding patients who expired, the graft survival at 1 year after ATT completion was 90.5%. Conclusion: For most developing nations, the World Health Organization's “End TB Strategy” remains far from their dream. An ideal investigation to detect TB in its early stage is essential in posttransplant recipients to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with it.

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