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Table of Contents
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 158-160

Awareness, attitude, and perception toward organ donation in general population of Haryana, India


1 General Health Services, Panchkula, Haryana, India
2 Mittal School of Business, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab, India
3 Department of Anaesthesia, Army Hospital (Research and Referral), New Delhi, India

Date of Submission18-Oct-2021
Date of Acceptance18-Jan-2022
Date of Web Publication30-Jun-2022

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Anurag Garg
Army Hospital (Research and Referral), New Delhi
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijot.ijot_104_21

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  Abstract 


Introduction: Organ donation is defined as an act of giving one or more organs, without compensation, for transplantation to another person the shortage of organ donation remains one of the biggest barriers globally to the organ transplantation process. The state of Haryana has in the recent past grown leaps ahead in terms of medical tourism, but according to recent data by the MOHAN Foundation, Haryana is among the poorest performers in organ donation, more specifically cadaveric organ donation. This study aimed to assess the attitudes and awareness of organ donation in the general population of Haryana and to find out the barrier to the low organ donation numbers in the state. Materials and Methods: This study was a community-based cross-sectional study carried out among the general population of Haryana. A questionnaire was administered to 500 randomly selected people above the age of 18 in the chosen population. The data were coded and analyzed using Microsoft Excel and SPSS software. Results: A large number, 40.6% (203/500), of the participants in the survey were unaware of the term “organ donation.” Only 24.5% (72/293) of participants were able to correctly identify that “organ donation” was possible from both cadavers and living human beings. 98.6% (289/293) of the participants of the survey were unaware of any legislation regarding organ donation. A dismal 27.3% (80/293) of participants were willing to donate their organs after death. Of those unwilling, 60.1% (128/213) reported that they did not want to donate because of their religion. Of those willing to donate, 28.7% (23/80) reported that they would only donate to a person of the same religion. Conclusion: The overall levels of awareness about the organ donation and acute shortage of organ donors in Haryana as well as awareness about the prevalent low rates themselves remain low. There are various religious biases leading to negative attitude toward organ donation.

Keywords: Attitudes, awareness, organ donation, perception, transplantation


How to cite this article:
Varshney S, Kansra P, Perumallapalli A, Garg A. Awareness, attitude, and perception toward organ donation in general population of Haryana, India. Indian J Transplant 2022;16:158-60

How to cite this URL:
Varshney S, Kansra P, Perumallapalli A, Garg A. Awareness, attitude, and perception toward organ donation in general population of Haryana, India. Indian J Transplant [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Aug 15];16:158-60. Available from: https://www.ijtonline.in/text.asp?2022/16/2/158/349343




  Introduction Top


Organ donation is defined as an act of giving one or more organs, without compensation, for transplantation to another person.[1] It is the most preferred treatment for many of end-stage organ diseases as it offers a better quality of life and has better long-term survival benefits.[2] It can help give a new lease of life to many and yet it is a complex multifactorial issue. Organ donation can widely be divided into live organ donation: when the organ is retrieved from a healthy living person, who is a near relative, and deceased organ donation: when the organ is retrieved from a person declared brain stem dead. In India, the rules for organ donation were laid down under the Transplantation of Human Organs Act, enacted in 1994. Under this act, donation of organs by deceased persons was made legal; and the transplantation between unrelated live individuals was made illegal.[3]

The shortage of organ donation remains one of the biggest barriers globally to the organ transplantation process, but India lags far behind the western world. Despite the 1.5 lakh annual accident victims in India who are diagnosed as brain stem dead, the organ donation rate is a dismal 0.86 per million population. The total number of deceased donors in India in 2020 was only 1105.[4]

The state of Haryana has in the recent past grown leaps ahead in terms of medical tourism, but according to recent data by the MOHAN Foundation, Haryana is among the poorest performers in organ donation, more specifically cadaveric organ donation.[4] Various social, ethical, and cultural factors affect organ donation. Myths and misconceptions along with a general lack of awareness add to the low percentage of cadaveric donations.

This study aimed to assess the attitudes and awareness of organ donation in the general population of Haryana and to find out the barrier to the low organ donation numbers in the state.


  Materials and Methods Top


This study was a community-based cross-sectional study carried out among the general population of Haryana.

As per the latest census, Haryana has a population of around 3 crore. According to the Ronan Conroy guide on sample sizing and web page at http://www.surveysystem.com/sscalc.htm, the sample size of approximately 500 will appropriate to have a study of 95% power and <5% margin of error for the first two objectives. Representative districts of Haryana were selected from different regions (North, South, East, and West) having maximum rural/urban mix of population, highest and lowest density of population.

Statistical analysis

Based on the above criteria, five districts were selected. The pilot phase or pretest of the study was conducted in one of the five shortlisted districts. A total of twenty persons were randomly selected and interviewed telephonically to carry out preliminary analysis. Reliability was measured through Cronbach's alpha, “α” score, which indicated that the tool is reliable and will measure the internal consistency. After considering the measurement error and rephrasing of words and statements, a final questionnaire was prepared. The questionnaire was then administered to 500 randomly selected people above the age of 18 in the chosen population. People who had undergone or had family who had undergone transplants were excluded. The data were coded and analyzed using Microsoft Excel and IBM SPSS softwares (IBM Corp. 2016. IBM SPSS Statistics for windows, Version 24.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.).

Declaration of patient consent

The patient consent has been taken for participation in the study and for publication of clinical details and images. Patients understand that the names and initials will not be published, and all standard protocols will be followed to conceal their identity.

Ethics statement

The study was conducted after due permission from the Institutional Ethical committee with IRB No 0000-1072- 2021. The study was performed according to the guidelines in Declaration of Helsinki.


  Results Top


Sociodemographic data

A total of 500 randomly selected people from various age groups, occupations, and social strata were interviewed. The sociodemographic variables of the sample are depicted in [Table 1].
Table 1: Sociodemographic variables and awareness of organ donation

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Awareness regarding organ donation

A large number, 40.6% (203/500), of the participants in the survey were unaware of the term “organ donation.” The awareness among various groups surveyed is depicted in [Table 1].

Of those aware, 69.1% (205/293) people reported that the source of their information was the media.

Only 24.5% (72/293) of participants were able to correctly identify that “organ donation” was possible from both cadavers and living human beings.

98.6% (289/293) of the participants of the survey were unaware of any legislation regarding organ donation, and only 18.8% (55/293) were aware that organs could not be donated for monetary benefits.

A surprising 94.5% (277/293) were unaware of the fact that many people lose their lives due to the acute shortage of organs the world is facing.

Attitudes toward organ donation

A dismal 27.3% (80/293) of participants were willing to donate their organs after death. Of those unwilling, 60.1% (128/213) reported that they did not want to donate because of their religion.

Of those willing to donate, 28.7% (23/80) reported that they would only donate to a person of the same religion.

30.1% (88/293) reported that the consent for donation should lie with the individual themselves, and 48.1% (141/293) reported that they would honor their family members' wish/pledge to donate organs and donor cards after their death. Eighty-three percent (243/293) of the participants believed that there was a potential danger that the donated organs could be misused.


  Discussion Top


We aimed to assess the attitudes and awareness of the general population of Haryana toward organ donation. Analysis of the data revealed interesting results.

40.6% of participants of the survey were unaware of the term “organ donation,” which was higher than the figure of 22% found in rural Puducherry by Balajee et al.[5] Interestingly, awareness was found to be lower in females; however, as per the national data, women comprise more than 75% of living organ donors.[6] Awareness was found to be lower in the elderly population, and age was a statistically significant factor affecting it. In our study, only 24.5% were able to correctly identify that organ donation was possible from both living donors and cadavers. This was much lower in comparison to the study by Balwani et al. in Western India, which was 56%.

Only 27.3% of the people aware about organ donation reported willingness to donate organs in our study, a stark difference from other studies in South India which reported up to 70% willingness to donate organs.[5] Media was found to be a major source of information for organ donation in our study, backing up various previous studies,[5],[7] thereby suggesting awareness through media has been integral in improving the general public's attitude toward organ donation, and there is a need for further efforts in continuing this hopefully inexorable trend.

Limitations

Large studies to validate the data required.


  Conclusion Top


Organ donation rates have shown a declining trend over past years even in highly literate states such as Kerala.[8] This is despite pan-religious promotion of organ donation by religious figures such as at the Sant Sangma organized by the MOHAN organization.[9]

However, as highlighted by this survey, the overall levels of awareness about the acute shortage of organ donors in Haryana as well as awareness about the prevalent low rates themselves remain low due to dearth of data regarding prevalent awareness trends and due to an understandable national focus on infectious and lifestyle diseases.

This leads to an incongruous mismatch of donors even with a national population exceeding 1 billion citizens.[7] The fact that this scenario is persisting despite the first live donor kidney transplant in India occurring more than half a century ago, is disheartening.[8]

The above data reflect this sad state of affairs, showing a correlation between education and awareness levels and reflecting the further need to address this issue.

Acknowledgment

SV and AP had written the initial script. SV and AG had edited and reviewed the literature. AG and PK have done final edition.AG and SV had collected the data.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Edwards TM, Essman C, Thornton JD. Assessing racial and ethnic differences in medical student knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding organ donation. J Natl Med Assoc 2007;99:131-7.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
World Health Organization. Ethics, Access and Safety in Tissue and Organ Transplantation: Issues of Global Concern. Madrid, Spain: World Health Organization; 2003.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Ministry of Law, Justice and Company Affairs. The Transplantation of Human Organs Act, 1994. New Delhi: Legislative Department; 1994.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Mohan Foundation. Deceased donation statistics. Indian Transplant Newsletter 2020–21 Vol.20 Issue No.62. March 2021 - June 2021.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Balajee KL, Ramachandran N, Subitha L. Awareness and attitudes toward organ donation in rural Puducherry, India. Ann Med Health Sci Res 2016;6:286-90.  Back to cited text no. 5
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
6.
Acharya VN. Status of renal transplant in India–May 1994. J Postgrad Med 1994;40:158-61.  Back to cited text no. 6
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
7.
Balwani MR, Gumber MR, Shah PR, Kute VB, Patel HV, Engineer DP, et al. Attitude and awareness towards organ donation in western India. Ren Fail 2015;37:582-8.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Kerala Network for Organ Sharing KNOS. Kerala Deceased Donor Transplant Data; 2019. Available from: http://knos.org.in/yearlystatistics.aspx. [Last accessed on 2021 Oct 09].  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Raghuram L, Shroff S. Religious leaders and organ donation – An Indian experience. Transplantation 2017;101:S59.  Back to cited text no. 9
    



 
 
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