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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 95-100

Experience of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in the patients infected with either hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus

Department of Medical and Pediatric Oncology, Gujarat Cancer Research Institute, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India

Correspondence Address:
Irappa Madabhavi
Department of Medical and Pediatric Oncology, Gujarat Cancer Research Institute, Ahmedabad, Gujarat
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.1016/j.ijt.2015.10.012

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Background: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is challenging in Hbs-Ag positive or HCV-Ab positive patients due to fear of delaying engraftment and transplant-related mortality (TRM). Very few data are published internationally till date. We had done HSCT (allogenic/autologus) of 19 hepatitis B and hepatitis C positive malignant and nonmalignant patients at our institute during the years 1999–2013. Design and methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of the patients who were either hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus seropositive at the time of HSCT (n = 19). All the positive patients (Hbs-Ag positive or HCV-Ab positive) who underwent HSCT for malignant or nonmalignant causes during 1999–2013 were selected. A total of 13 patients underwent autologus HSCT and 6 patients underwent allogenic HSCT. All the included patients had performance score 1, normal liver function test, and noninfectious state of Hbe antigen before HSCT. Results: The median age of the seropositive patients was 25 years (range 7–54); 16 patients were Hbs-Ag positive and 3 were HCV-Ab positive. Most common indication of HSCT was lymphoma (n = 12), in which 7 patients were of Hodgkin disease and 5 patients were of non-Hodgkin disease (NHL). Three patients were acute myeloid leukemia, 2 patients of thalassemia major, 1 patient was of chronic myeloid leukemia-chronic phase, and 1 of multiple myeloma. We had used high-dose chemotherapy for induction with carmustine, etoposide, cytarabine, and melphalan (BEAM) for autologus HSCT and busulfan, cyclophosphamide (BUCY), busulfan, cyclophosphamide-thymoglobulin (BUCY-THYMO), and reduced intensity HSCT (RIST) for allogenic HSCT. All the patients underwent successful engraftment except one NHL patient. The median duration of neutropenia was 14 and 11 days in the allogenic HSCT and autologus HSCT, respectively. Median duration for engraftment of neutrophils was achieved on +Day 17 with 3 consecutive absolute neutrophil counts of more than 500 cumm/dL. Median duration for engraftment of platelets was achieved on +Day 19 with 3 consecutive platelet counts of more than 50,000 cumm/dL without any component support. Out of 6 allogenic HSCT patients, 4 developed graft versus host disease (GVHD) (2 – liver, 1 – colon, 1 – both skin and liver). Three patients died due to liver GVHD (2 – acute, 1 – chronic). Grades of GVHD in allogeneic HSCT patients are as follows, for liver (grade 3 in 2, grade 4 in 1), colon (grade 2 in 1), and skin (grade 2 in 1). Out of the 8 patients, one patient developed grade 3 veno-occlusive disease. Median at 100 days, 1-year overall survival (OS), and 5-year OS were 89.4%, 94.1%, and 81.1%, respectively. Conclusions: HSCT is a rugged job in Hbs-Ag positive or HCV-Ab positive patients due to more complications in the form of more neutropenia, GVHD, drug toxicity of chemotherapy, acute fulminant liver failure, fear of delaying of engraftment, and TRM. Careful evaluation before embarking on HSCT and intensive assessment against complications are warranted in Hbs-Ag positive and HCV-Ab positive recipients.

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